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Academic Writing Lessons

Academic Writing Lessons

Use Better alternative words

Original Better alternative
consider evaluate,assess
check verify,confirm
different distinct,diverse,various,varied
little/few seldom,slightly
problem limitaion,restriction,obstacle,hindrance
need require,stipulate
affect influence,shape
carry out implement,execute,primulgate,conduct
change modify,adjust,alter,vary
complicated complex,cumbersome,intricate
correct/incorrect precise/imprecise,accurate/inaccurate
find determine,derive,attain,locate,identify
help assist,facilitate,guide,direct
important critical,crucial,essential,pertinent,relevant,significant,vital
improve enhance,upgrade,elevate
is made of consists of,comprises,is composed of
make clear elucidate,clarify
makesure ensure,assure
meet satisfy,fulfill,adhere to
much/strongly markedly,considerably,substantially
realize comprehend,preceive,understand
solve alleviate,modify,resolve,eliminate,eradicate
suitable appropriate,adequate
tries attempts,aims,aspires
usually normally,typically,generally
very highly,rather,quite,extremely
way method,means,approach,strategy
whole complete,entire,comprehensive
is found to be is
is capable of can
is view of the fact that because
in this case here
in some cases occasionally
in no case never
the question as to whether
subsequent to after,following
serves the function of is
reach a conclusion is
put an end to end
provided that if
come to a conclusion conclude
by means of by
in a position to can
be deficient in lack
at this point in time now
at the present time now
notwithstanding the fact that although
manner in which how
make inquiry regrading ask about,inquire about
it is possible that may,might,could,can
in most cases uaually
in many cases often
in large measure largely
is in excess of exceeds,surpasses
in proximity to near
in case if
in all cases always
a number of several,many,numerous
if conditions are such that if
happens to be am,is,are
give indication of indicate,suggest
give consideration to consider
for this reason because
for the reason that so
for the purpose of for/to
during the time that while
due to the fact that because
despite the fact that althought
at such time as when
ascertain the location of find
along the lines of such as
a majority of most

Formal Grammer and Style

  1. Avoid contracion

     Export figures will not improve until the economy is stronger.
     Export figures won't improve until the economy is stronger.
  2. Use the more appropriate formal negative forms.

     not...much -> little
     not...any -> no
     not...many -> few
  3. Limit the use of “run on” expressions, such as “and so forth” and “etc.”

     These semiconductors can be used in robots, CD players, etc. —>
     These semiconductors can be used in robots, CD players, and other electronic devices.
  4. Avoid addressing the reader as “you”

     You can see the results in Table 1.
     The results can be seen in Table 1.
  5. Limit the use of direct questions.

     Instead, use "we now need to consider..."
  6. Place adverbs within the verb.

     Then the solution can be discarded.
     The solution can then be discarded.
     The blood is withdraw slowly.
     The blood is slowly withdraw.
  7. Do not be wordy.

(To be continued…)